外国人眼中 的东北老工业基地(英中对照)


东北复兴待何时? | 纽约时报——1


China, Like U.S., Struggles to Revive Industrial Heartland

SHENYANG, China — The hulking, brown-brick industrial plants lining the roads were once the backbone of this gritty city. Today, they are outdated and unwanted, and the region is one of the Chinese economy’s most troubled.
中国沈阳。路两侧棕色砖头砌成的庞大工厂曾经是这座粗犷城市的脊梁。今天,一切都过时了,没有人待见它们,这里是中国经济最困难的地区。
A short drive away, however, a newly minted industrial park offers reasons for optimism. Liu Qi, the chairman of PQI Industrial Technology Group, opened an $18 million factory there last year, equipped with whirring robots that pound out car parts for the German automaker BMW.
然而,开车走不远,一座新修的工业园让人有了乐观的理由。普祺工业科技术集团董事长刘奇去年投资1800万美元建厂,机器人飕飕生风,为德国汽车制造商宝马打造汽车配件。
The factory, and the more than 200 jobs it has created, is just one small part of a grand plan led by China’s government to rejuvenate Shenyang, a city of eight million, by replacing stumbling state industries with modern manufacturing and start-up companies.
该工厂创造了超过200个就业岗位,是振兴沈阳宏大计划的一小部分。中国政府在这座拥有800万人口的城市推动着这一计划,将举步维艰的国有工业替换为现代制造业和初创企业。
"When things hit bottom, there is an opportunity for things to go up," Mr. Liu, 46, said.
"触底了,就有机会反弹,"46岁的刘奇说。
Whether the rejuvenation happens will shape not just the future of Shenyang, but also, potentially, the entire Chinese economy. The city’s woes represent a broader problem: There are too many unproductive, debt-laden factories that are losing business as China’s growth slows. If Beijing fails to overhaul those crumbling industries and revive the communities that rely on them, Shenyang and the surrounding area — and other similar regions — could weigh heavily on the country’s economic progress.
振兴与否不仅塑造着沈阳的未来,可能还关乎整个中国经济。这所城市的困难体现出更大的问题:随着中国增长放缓,有太多不事生产、债务累累的工厂。如果中国政府不能彻底整治这些濒临垮塌的产业,并让仰仗其生活的人再度活跃起来,沈阳和其周边地区以及其他类似地区可能成为该国经济发展的重担。
The story of Shenyang will probably sound familiar in places like Midwestern towns in the United States that have seen important industries decline or depart. During China’s go-go years, when factories, roads and housing were constructed with wild abandon, the city’s heavy industrial companies, many of them owned by the state, boomed. A rush of wealth was plowed into new apartment towers and shopping malls in Shenyang. The city still has an industrial air, with central office blocks designed in a near-uniform drab brown, matching its factory complexes.
沈阳的故事在美国中西部城镇并不陌生,那里也经历了重要产业的凋零或离去。在中国大干快上的那些年里,工厂、公路和住房野蛮生长,该市的重工业随之繁荣起来,而许多是国有公司。大量财富流入沈阳的新住宅楼和购物中心。城市还有一种工业范儿,中央商务区大楼设计成单调划一的浅褐色,和工厂车间统一风格。
But as China’s investment binge fizzled, Shenyang and its factories sputtered. Last year, the economy of the northeastern province of Liaoning, of which Shenyang is the capital, shrank 2.5 percent — a shocking figure in a country accustomed to seemingly endless expansion. Other major cities have sped ahead of Shenyang in the development of the high-tech and service companies expected to propel China’s future growth.
可随着中国投资热潮虎头蛇尾,沈阳和沈阳的工厂算是完犊子了。去年,东北辽宁省的经济下降2.5%,对习惯于不断扩张的过渡而言,这一数字令人大跌眼镜,而沈阳正是辽宁省的省会。其他主要城市发展超过沈阳,发展高技术和服务业,有望驱动中国未来的增长。
The entire northeast of the country, where much heavy industry has been concentrated, runs the risk of being left badly behind. The decay of this factory zone has left Beijing with a similar knotty problem to the one that has plagued Washington for decades: how to resurrect down-on-their-luck areas. In the United States, President Trump plans to streamline regulation, cut corporate taxes and renegotiate trade pacts to bring factory jobs back to troubled towns.
整个东北主要以重工业为主,有被落在后面的风险。这一工业区的衰落,让中国政府同样面临着困扰了美国政府数十年的棘手问题:如何复兴走下坡路的地区。在美国,特朗普总统计划简政放权,削减公司税,重新谈判贸易协定,把工厂岗位送回困难重重的城市中去。

沈阳斯特翻译公司转载
Around the world, state intervention to attempt to stimulate a domestic economy is not unusual. But officials in China, as is often the case, have adopted a much more hands-on approach. With lavish incentives and initiatives, they are trying to attract investment to the region and to upgrade its industries. Shenyang is a crucial test case. The city has set up a $7 million fund to support high-tech industries, promised a $30,000 bonus for some technology firms, and offered to pare the corporate tax rate for companies in favored sectors.
放眼世界,通过国家干预来刺激国内经济并不稀奇。但中国官员一贯更加亲力亲为。通过大幅激励和有力倡议,他们力图把投资吸引过来,升级产业。沈阳是关键的试点。该市设立了700万美元基金支持高科技业,承诺给部分技术公司3万美元奖励,并降低了优先发展部门的公司税率。
Mr. Liu’s factory opened inside the China-Germany Equipment Manufacturing Industrial Park, introduced in late 2015 to try to attract advanced production in robotics, automotive components and other industrial sectors. The government offers a 30 percent discount on land, streamlined regulations and other perks for companies that set up in the facility. PQI is now negotiating for rent breaks and cheap land for his current factory, as well as for future investments.
刘奇的工厂位于中德装备制造产业园内,工业园2015年末开业,引进机器人、汽车配件和其他工业部门中的高端制造。政府在土地方面给予30%的折扣,简化法规,为在园内建厂的公司提供各类特殊照顾。普祺正在为目前的工厂和未来投资申请租金宽减和土地低价转让。
Zhang Yanzan, the park’s deputy director, says that, since its opening, more than 140 factories have been completed or are underway, hauling in a total investment of nearly $6 billion. "We hope this park can be an example for other areas," he said.
工业园副主任张砚瓒表示,开园以来,超过140家工厂入驻或正在入驻,吸引总投资近60亿美元。"我们希望园区成为其他地区的范本。"
The city authorities are also striving to persuade local college graduates to start companies in Shenyang by offering subsidies. The effort is focused on a shopping arcade of fast-food restaurants and computer outlets that had Start-Up and Innovation Street added to its name in 2015. On the top floor of one office tower in the area is an incubator called Phoenix Valley, founded by two Shenyang-born businessmen. One room is a cafe, where budding entrepreneurs swap tips over cappuccinos and browse shelves of books on business building. Next door, desks can be rented in a communal office for 300 renminbi, or about $45, a month. The incubator has more than 100 members and will soon open a second office in the city.
市政府还提供补助,鼓励当地大学毕业生在沈阳创业。这主要集中在2015年被命名为"创业创新大街"的一条商街,两侧是快餐馆和电脑门市。 这里一栋写字楼的顶层有一家叫做"梧桐谷"的孵化企业,是两个沈阳商人创建的。一间屋子是咖啡厅,创业者喝着卡布奇诺交流经验,浏览满架子的创业书籍。隔壁是公用办公室,可以租桌子,每月300元,约合45美元。孵化器有100多个成员,很快会在沈阳再开一家。
"The development in Shenyang is not as fast as in Beijing and Shenzhen, but if start-ups are really good at what they do, they will have more potential to grow," said Hong Qifan, who founded Phoenix Valley with his business partner, Ma Ke, citing China’s capital and one of its southern boom towns.
"沈阳的发展没有北京和深圳那么快,但如果初创企业真得找对了路子,他们的增长潜力也大,"梧桐谷洪启凡和合伙人马可对比中国首都和中国南部一发展迅速的城市时说。
Shenyang’s taxpayers are contributing to the effort. Some entrepreneurs are eligible for subsidized housing, with rent costing the equivalent of $30 a month. This year, Phoenix Valley received a cash handout from the central and municipal governments worth more than $70,000. Local officials also helped the incubator’s founders negotiate a below-market rent for its headquarters.
沈阳的纳税人也出了力。有些企业家有资格获得住房补贴,租金大概也就每月30美元。今年,梧桐谷拿到中央和市政府超过7万美元的现金。当地官员还帮助孵化器创始人拿到低于市场价的房租作为总部办公地。
Occupying one of the Phoenix Valley desks recently was Tao Qiuchen, 25, a Shenyang native who has founded a company called Hong Mo Fang Enterprise Management, which plans parties. In less than a year, Mr. Tao has hired 20 employees, thanks in part to the local government, which pays the interest on the $24,000 bank loan he took out to start the business.
25岁的陶秋晨租了梧桐谷的桌子,他是沈阳本地人,创建了红磨坊企业管理公司,主营策划派对。不到一年时间,陶秋晨雇佣了20名员工,一定程度上多亏了地方政府,后者支付了他创业时从银行获得的2.4万美元贷款的利息。
The government programs "are definitely helping the economy," he said. Still, Innovation Street pales in comparison to the efforts in hot spots like Beijing and Hangzhou, a city in the east, which have not only higher salaries, but also entire neighborhoods of start-up centers. And the residents of Phoenix Valley complain that venture capital and talent are scarce in Shenyang.
政府项目"肯定对经济有帮助",他说。但创业创新大街没法与北京、杭州等热点城市相比。东部城市杭州不仅工资更高,整片地区都是初创企业中心。入驻梧桐谷的创业者抱怨沈阳没有风投和人才。
Other initiatives in the city seem to be generating more buzz than business. In April, Shenyang opened a branch of the provincial free-trade zone, in which companies can benefit from reduced red tape, discounted land and other advantages. At its offices, in the corner of a gargantuan, columned hall worthy of a Star Trek set, dozens of businesspeople and their agents lined up to register companies.
城市其他举措的声势看起来比生意要红火。四月,一个省级自由贸易区设立了沈阳片区,对于企业而言,这里审批手续少,土地价格有优惠,还有其他一些好处。自贸片区办公室设在一个巨大的、有廊柱的大厅一角,宛若《星际迷航》的布景。数十名商人及其代理人正在排队注册公司。
But the zone’s rules do not require these businesspeople to start any actual operations there. Tian Jiawei, a manager at an agricultural company based near Shenyang, registered an export-import firm, but has no plans to open an office or hire workers. "I’m not sure what kind of tax break I might enjoy, but I didn’t want to miss the opportunity," he said.
但自贸区规定不要求商人在此进行实质性企业活动。沈阳附近一家农业公司的负责人田家玮注册了一家进出口公司,但不打算设办公室或招聘员工。"我不确定能享受什么税收减免优惠,但我不想错过机会,"他说。
More problematic: Shenyang’s incentive programs are not unique. "Every province and city in China has policies to encourage investment and start-ups," said Zhao Xijun, deputy dean of the School of Finance at Renmin University in Beijing. "If northeast cities just do the same, they won’t be able to compete with those who are already ahead of them."
更麻烦的是,沈阳的刺激计划并非独一无二。"中国的每个省市都有鼓励投资和创业的政策,"中国人民大学财政金融学院副院长赵锡军说。"如果东北各市只是做一样的事,他们无法与已经走在它们前面的那些地方竞争。
The result is that, even with its active officials, China may find reviving its troubled industrial towns every bit as challenging as Western countries like the United States do.
结果是,即便官员行动积极,中国可能发现重振陷入困境的工业城市,其难度一点也不比美国等西方国家弱。
"Shenyang still has a long way to go," Mr. Liu, the factory owner, said. "It is like grass that you burn to the ground. It is going to grow back. You just don’t see it at the moment."
"沈阳还有很长的一段路要走,"工厂主刘奇说。"好比你把地上的草烧干净了,它会长回来的,但现在还看不到。"
沈阳斯特翻译公司转载

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